Back to articles list
- 1 minutes read

Milestones of Relational Databases

Computer databases first emerged in the late 1960s after computers had become powerful enough to handle large amounts of financial, human resources and bank data. Let’s take a look at the history of how modern databases came about.

1960s: navigational databases, mostly hierarchical databases and network databases, were first used

1970: E.F. Codd from IBM introduces the concept of relational databases and the first normal form

1971: second and third normal form are introduced by Codd

1973: project INGRES (the predecessor of PostgreSQL) begins in Berkeley

1974: project System R begins at IBM, developing the first implementation of SQL

1974: Boyce-Codd normal form is introduced

1976: the entity-relationship model is introduced by Peter Chen from MIT

1977: 4th normal form by R. Fagin

1978: the first release of Oracle DB, based on IBM’s papers

1979: public release of Oracle Version 2 (version 1 was never released)

1979: 5th normal form by R. Fagin

1983: the very first release of IBM DB2 database

1985: project INGRES ends, the post-Ingres project starts in Berkeley

1990: the first public release of Postgres database

1990s: relational databases are the industry standard

2000s: NoSQL and NewSQL movements emerge

2013: Vertabelo, the first web-based database modeling tool, is released ;-)

go to top